Excretory System Project

In class our teacher, Cecilia Adem, introduced us the last proyect in Biology. This consisted on making a model and explaining all the parts of the urinary system or excretory system. She also assigned us pairs to work with. I worked with Belen Brito Peret. Here it is our proyect:

Parts of the excretory system:

  • Kidneys:

They are at the back of the abdomen, behind the intestine.

The kidney is present on each side of the vertebral column in the abdominal cavity. Humans have two kidneys and each kidney is supplied with blood from the renal artery.

The kidneys remove from the blood the nitrogenous  such as urea, as well as salts and excess water, and excrete them in the form of urine. This is done with the help of millions of nephrons present in the kidney.

The urine from the kidney is collected by the ureter, one from each kidney, and is passed to the bladder.

  • The bladder:

The bladder collects and stores the urine until urination. The urine collected in the bladder is passed into the external environment from the body through an opening called the urethra.

The bladder is the organ that collects waste excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. It is an  elastic organ, and sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder through the ureters and exits in the urethra.

Urine, excreted by the kidneys, collects in the bladder before disposal by urination. The bladder usually holds 300-350 ml of urine. The bladder stores larger amounts of urine without a significant rise in internal pressure.

  • Interior vena cava:

The inferior vena cava is the largest vein in the human body. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart. Although the vena cava is large.
The inferior vena cava forms at the superior end of the pelvic cavity when the common iliac veins unite to form a larger vein. From the pelvis, the inferior vena cava ascends through the posterior abdominal body wall just to the right of the vertebral column.

  • Ureters:

The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. The upper half of the ureter is located in the abdomen and the lower half is located in the pelvic area. The tube has thick walls composed of a fibrous, a muscular, and a mucus coat, which are able to contract

  • Renal Veins:

The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney. They connect the inferior vena cava to the kidney. They carry the blood filtered by the kidney.There are two renal veins, a left and a right. As they enter the kidneys, each vein separates into two parts. The posterior veins assist in draining the back section of each kidney, while the anterior veins assist the front part. These veins also are responsible for draining blood from the ureter, which transports urine away from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

  • Renal arteries:

The renal arteries arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the crus of the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle with the aorta. The renal arteries carry blood flow to the kidneys. Up to a third of total cardiac output can pass through the renal arteries to be filtered by the kidneys.

  • Urethra:

The urethra is the tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the exterior of the body. The female urethra is around 2 inches long and ends inferior to the clitoris and superior to the vaginal opening. In males, the urethra is around 8 to 10 inches long and ends at the tip of the penis. The urethra is also an organ of the male reproductive system as it carries sperm out of the body through the penis.

Besides, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.

  • Dorsal Aorta:

The abdominal aorta is about an inch in diameter and extends along the entire length of the abdomen, from the diaphragm to the pelvis. It enters the abdomen through a small opening at the posterior end of the diaphragm, just anterior to the spinal column. From this point, it descends along the spine parallel to the inferior vena cava until it reaches the pelvis, where it divides into the right and left common iliac arteries.

Many major arteries branch from the abdominal aorta to provide blood flow to the vital organs of the abdomen. Its visceral branches provide blood to organs, while its parietal branches supply blood to the tissues of the abdominal body wall.

  • Adrenal gland:

You have two adrenal glands. They’re located on top of each of your kidneys. They  produce hormones.

While they’re small in size, the adrenal glands are responsible for  hormone-related functions in your body. As a result, disorders that affect your adrenal glands can have a broad impact on your health.

To make the model, we used a pair of headphones to represent both kidneys which have wires that we used to represent the ureter. Also, on the kidneys,  we used telgopor to make the adrenal gland. Later, we found contact paper, that we cut it to make the vena cava. The same with the dorsal aorta, which is blue fabric. Finally, to create the urinary bladder, we bought a can of “Coca-Cola”  that we wrapped in red contact paper. Also, we cut red contact paper to create the urethra.

Respiration + Gas exchange

October 4th

Act 11.3 Book page 143

A1 Is important to boil water to dry off any dissolved air.

A2 So that the yeast would not mix with the ahogar solution.

A3 To absorb the oxygen of the yeast.

A4It transport carbon dioxide from the yeast to the limewater.

A5 Alcohol

A6 If you respire near the yeast tube you would change the experiment and have a variable.




Biology Notes

The 4 chemicals


Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy.They contain the elements Carbón,Hydrogen and Oxygen.

Wednesday 16

Animal nutrition

Enzymes are all proteins
Amylase has the function to barake done molécules in the molecules of starch.
The en unes aletas finishes in ase.

Balanced diet
—-proteínas —-growth repair
—–lápids —f
Structural storage
—–minerals calcium

Biology Notes

Wednesday 7 of June

Biology note taking


Respiration: Respiration is the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy

•Double membrane
•It’s in the cytoplasm
•Glucose comes from food
•Oxygen comes from Breeding
•They combine chemically
•C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 —- 6H2O + 6CO2 + E
•Energy transforms produces ATP

Tuesday 13 of June

Functions of respiration:
Molecule contraction
Making protein molecules:longing together animo ácids into long chains

All this energy comes from food we eat.

Wednesday 14 of June


Adenosin triphoophate

The one that has more ATP Lives energy and leaves molecule and formed another one.

All our energy has to be transformed to ATP to be able to do the things we want to do.

The three prophet groups re trying to separate all the time.

Of one molecule of glucose is obtained its obtenía 38 molecules of ATP.

Respiration fórmula:
Glucose + 6 oxygen m — 6CO2 m + 6H2O m + E 38 ATP

Aerobic respiration

The release of relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the prices of oxígen

Glucose + oxygen —- carbon dioxide + water

Anaerobic respiration

Anaerobic respiration:the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of O2

Anaerobic respiration in molecules during exercise:

Glucose —– lactic acid + energy

Anaerobic respiration in yeast:

Glucose —- ethanol + carbon dioxide + energy

Molecules respire anaerobically when exercising vigorously,because the blood Cannot supply enough oxygen to maintain anaerobic respiration,however,the formation and buildup of Latin and in muscles causes cramp.


78% N2

20% 02 16%


The lactic acid that is made is transported to the liver, and later is broken down by combining it with O2. This extra O2 is breathed in after the exercise has stopped, and it is known as the oxygen debt.

Biology summery


The states of matter are stages in wich the water pases throw and it always variate its solidness.

The picture below shows the gas state and is when water is very hot and the particles move very fast

The picture below shows the liquid state its when the water is not so hot and it moves less than the gas state but more then the solid state.

The picture below shows the solid state is a state where all the liquid is an ice .

Mostrando IMG_3387.JPG